The Effects of Learning L1 in Later Stages

Researched and produced by Molly Estes

Johnson, J & Newport, E. (1989). Critical period effects in second language learning: the influences of maturational state on the acquisition of English as a second language. Cognitive Psychology, 21, 60-99.
Mayberry, R., Lock, E., & Kazmi, H. (2002). Linguistic ability and early exposure. Nature, 417, 38.
Morford, J. & Mayberry, R. (2000). Language acquisition by eye (p.111-128). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum and Associates.
Morgan, G. & Kegl, J. (2006). Nicaraguan sign language and theory of mind: the issue of critical periods and abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47:8, 811-819.

Special thanks to Dr. Deborah Chen Pichler for making this happen.


Tuesday, November 1st, 2011. Filed under: L1 Linguistics

2 Responses and Counting

  • Lisa Smith Powell 11.01.2011

    This is good information about linguistics. I agree that babies and kids need to know sign language early. My parents are hearing and used home signs and gestures since I was 3 years old. When I was 8 years old, my teacher tried to teach me speech by showing me labels. But I could not read. I memorized colors and pictures. My teacher thought I could read. I was raised orally without learning ASL linguistics. I went to Alabama School for the Deaf from 1969 to 1982. I entered when I was 9 years old. I learned few sign language from my hearing teachers. It limited me from learning English, Literature, Health, Science, and Math. I failed tests. My teachers wasted my education. Thank you. Lisa Smith Powell

  • Yes, this reflects my childhood.

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